Answered By: Jennifer Harris
Last Updated: Apr 05, 2016     Views: 1602

Generally speaking, if you cannot identify the author of a source, you move the title to the author position in the reference list/works cited and use a shortened version of the title for the in-text citation. If you cannot identify the publication date, you substitute n.d. for “no date.” Here are examples of how it works in the three major citation styles:

APA Style

Reference List (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

Per the APA Manual (6th edition), p. 184 and 185:

In a reference to a work with no author, move the title to the author position, before the date of publication. A period follows the title.

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/

If no date is available, write n.d. in parentheses.

The College of William and Mary. (n.d.). College mission statement. Retrieved from http://www.wm.edu/about/administration/provost/mission/index.php

In-Text Citations

Per the APA Manual (6th edition), p. 176:

When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, a chapter, or a web page and italicize the title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report:    

on free care (“Study Finds,” 2007)

the book College Bound Seniors (2008)

For additional examples and tips on citing sources with no author or date in APA Style, check out the APA Style Blog’s post on Missing Pieces, or the Purdue OWL (Reference List, In-Text Citations).

MLA Style

Works Cited (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

Per the MLA Handbook (7th edition), p. 145, 162 and 179:

If no author’s name is given for the article you are citing, begin the entry with the title. Ignore any "A", "An", or "The" when you alphabetize the entry.

“Where angels no longer fear to tread.” Economist 22 Mar. 2008: 89+. Print.

If a book has no author’s or editor’s name on the title page, begin the entry with the title. Do not use "Anonymous" or "Anon".

American Heritage Guide to Contemporary Usage and Style. Boston: Houghton, 2005. Print.

When a book does not indicate the publisher, the place or date of publication, or pagination, supply as much of the missing information as you can, using square brackets to show that it did not come from the source. Use the following abbreviation for information you cannot supply: n.d. (no date of publication given).

New York: U of Gotham P, [2008].

New York: U of Gotham P, n.d.

Parenthetical Reference (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

Per the MLA Handbook (7th edition), p. 223 and 224:

In a parenthetical reference to a work alphabetized by title in the list of works cited, the full title (if brief) or a shortened version precedes the page, paragraph, section, or reference number or numbers (if any), unless the title appears in your text. When abbreviating the title, begin with the word by which it is alphabetized.

International espionage was as prevalent as ever in the 1990s (“Decade”).

Works Cited

 “Decade of the Spy.” Newsweek 7 Mar. 1994: 26-27. Print.

For additional examples and tips on citing sources with no author or date in MLA Style, check out the Purdue OWL (Works Cited, Parenthetical Reference).

Chicago Style

Per the Chicago Manual of Style (16th edition):

Notes and Bibliography method (p. 697 and 722) (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should normally begin with the title. An initial article is ignored in alphabetizing.

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced (London, 1610).

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610.

When the publication date of a printed work cannot be ascertained, the abbreviation n.d. takes the place of the year in the publication details. A guessed-at date may either be substituted (in brackets) or added.

Boston, n.d.

Edinburgh, [1750?] or Edinburgh, n.d., ca. 1750

Author-Date References (p. 801) (don't forget to indent the second and subsequent lines):

If the author or editor is unknown, the reference list entry should normally begin with the title. An initial article is ignored in alphabetizing. Text citations may refer to a short form of the title but must include the first word (other than the initial article).

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. 1610. London.

(True and Sincere Declaration 1610)

When the publication date of a printed work cannot be ascertained, the abbreviation n.d. takes the place of the year in the reference list entry and text citations. Though it follows a period in the reference list, n.d. remains lowercased to avoid conflation with the author’s name; in text citations, it is preceded by a comma. A guessed-at date may be substituted (in brackets).

Nano, Jasmine L. [1750?] Title of Work…

(Nano [1750?])

(Nano, n.d.)

For additional information on citing sources with no author or date in Chicago Style, check out the Purdue OWL. For more information and examples for citations, see our Citing Your Sources research guide.  

This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources with no identified author or publication date in your class assignments and projects.

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