Answered By: Jennifer Harris
Last Updated: Jun 19, 2017     Views: 396

Each citation format has a different method to cite a source with either no author or multiple authors.  

APA

To determine authorship ask "who is responsible for this content?"  The responsible party can be one person, multiple people, or even entities (governments, associations, companies, etc.).  

If there is truly no obvious responsible party APA handles this by moving the content’s title into the author position (with no quotation marks around it). This most commonly occurs for wiki entries, dictionary entries, and unattributed website content. In the in-text citation, the title (put inside double quotation marks) likewise takes the place of the author’s name.

Multiple authors:

For in-text citations, see our guide "One or More Authors for the Same Source."  For reference lists, see our guide "APA Reference List Examples." 

MLA

When a source has no known author you can use a shortened title of the work in place of an author's name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number.

We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . ." ("Impact of Global Warming" 6).

For multiple authors, please see our guides "MLA in-Text Citations" and "MLA Citation Examples."

Chicago

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should begin with the title (an initial article is ignored in alphabetizing). (See 14.79 for more information).

For example (don't forget proper indentation): 

8. A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced (London, 1610).

9. Stanze in lode della donna brutta (Florence, 1547).

Stanze in lode della donna brutta. Florence, 1547.

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610.

Although the use of Anonymous is generally to be avoided, it may stand in place of the author’s name in a bibliography in which several anonymous works need to be grouped. In such an instance, Anonymous or Anon. (set in roman) appears at the first entry, and 3-em dashes (see 14.64) are used thereafter. 

For multiple authors (See 14.76 and 14.77):

Two or three authors (or editors) of the same work are listed in the order used on the title page. In a bibliography, only the first author’s name is inverted, and a comma must appear both before and after the first author’s given name or initials. Use the conjunction and (not an ampersand).

For example (don't forget proper indentation): 

5. Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds., Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 32.

6. Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything (New York: William Morrow, 2005), 20–21.

7. Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang, Two-Spirit People, 65–71.

Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Levitt, Steven D., and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. New York: William Morrow, 2005.

More information:

For further help please contact the Wolak Learning Center at 603.645.9606 (UC Students) and Online Writing Center at 866.721.1662 (Online/COCE Students) for assistance.

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