Answered By: Jennifer Harris
Last Updated: Oct 19, 2017     Views: 1717

Each citation format has a different method to cite a source with either no author or multiple authors.  

APA

To determine authorship ask "who is responsible for this content?"  The responsible party can be one person, multiple people, or even entities (governments, associations, companies, etc.).  

No Author

If there is truly no obvious responsible party APA handles this by moving the content’s title into the author position - use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or a web page, italicize the title of a periodical, book, a brochure, or report. This most commonly occurs for wiki entries, dictionary entries, and unattributed website content. In the in-text citation, the title (either inside double quotation marks or italicized) likewise takes the place of the author’s name (see page 176 of the APA Manual).

General Format for In-Text Citation: 

("Shortened Article Title," 2016, p. #)

(Shortened Book Title, 2003, p. #)

For example:

("Spies," 2017, p. 85-97)

(Conduct Library Research, 1993, p. 248)

Reference Entry (don't forget proper indentation):

The Spies of the American Revolution. (2017). Journal of Spy History, 21(2), 82-103.

How to Conduct Library Research. (1993). Manchester, NH: Shapiro Library Press.

Multiple authors

The following are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors in APA style. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 177, Table 6.1 for additional information.  The following examples have two initial and two subsequent citations.  The first initial and subsequent citations are modeled for use in the sentence.  The second initial and subsequent citations are the parenthetical citations.  

Two Authors

Initial citation:

Taylor and Fisher (2017)

(Taylor & Fisher, 2017)

Subsequent Citations:

Taylor and Fisher (2017)

(Taylor & Fisher, 2017)

Three authors

Initial citation:

Weatherby, Miller, and Harrison (2012)

(Weatherby, Miller, & Harrison, 2012)

Subsequent Citations:

Weatherby et al. (2012)

(Weatherby et al., 2012)

Four Authors

Initial citation:

Reed, Lowes, Park, and Nam (2006)

(Reed, Lowes, Park, & Nam, 2006)

Subsequent Citations:

Reed et al. (2006)

(Reed et al., 2006)

For more examples, including five or more authors, references that have the same year and several of the same authors, and two citations with the same author and same year, please see our "Formatting Author's in In-Text Citations" Guide.

MLA

No Author

If the resource has a corporate author (government body, organization, etc.) use that entity as the author. 

NOTE: if the corporate author is also the publisher, list the corporate entity as the publisher and skip the author and begin with the resource’s title.

According to the MLA Style Center if a resource doesn’t have an author do not use “Anonymous,” instead use the title of the resource.  In in-text citations, use a shortened title of the work in place of an author's name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work (such as an article) or italicize it if it's a longer work (e.g. plays, books, television shows, entire Web sites) and provide a page number.

General Format:

("Shortened Article Title" p#)

(Shortened Book Title p#)

For example:

("Spies" 100)

(Conduct Library Research 312-315)

Works Cited Entry (don't forget proper indentation):

“The Spies of the American Revolution.” Journal of Spy History, vol. 21, no. 2, Spring 2017, pp. 82-103.

How to Conduct Library Research. Shapiro Library Press, 1993.

Multiple Authors

For sources with two authors Include both last names connected by and with the page number (see page 116 of the MLA 8th edition):

General Format:

(LastName1 and LastName2 p#)

LastName1 and LastName2 state that .... (p#).

For example:

Russell and Winterbottom state in their introduction that .... (11).

The authors state that ... (Russell and Winterbottom 11).

Works Cited Entry (don't forget proper indentation): 

Russell, D. A., and Michael Winterbottom. Classical Literary Criticism. Oxford UP, 2008.

For sources with three or more authors use the first author's last name followed by et al. and then the page number (see page 116 of the MLA 8th edition):

General Format:

(LastName1 et al p#)

LastName1 et al. discuss .... (p#).

For example:

Marscot et al. discuss the ... (29).

The authors disagree with a hypothesis proposed by .... (Marscot et al. 14).

Works Cited Entry (don't forget proper indentation): 

Marscot, Michel et al. Applied Social Sciences. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013.

For multiple authors, please see our guides "MLA in-Text Citations" and "MLA Citation Examples."

Chicago

No Author

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should begin with the title (an initial article is ignored in alphabetizing). (See 14.79: No listed author (anonymous works) for more information).

For example (don't forget proper indentation): 

8. A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced (London, 1610).

9. Stanze in lode della donna brutta (Florence, 1547).

Bibliography Entry (don't forget proper indentation):

Stanze in lode della donna brutta. Florence, 1547.

A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia, of the Degrees Which It Hath Received, and Means by Which It Hath Been Advanced. London, 1610.

Although the use of Anonymous is generally to be avoided, it may stand in place of the author’s name in a bibliography in which several anonymous works need to be grouped. In such an instance, Anonymous or Anon. (set in roman) appears at the first entry, and 3-em dashes (see 14.67: The 3-em dash in bibliographies—some caveats) are used thereafter. 

Multiple Authors

(See 14.76: Two or more authors (or editors)):

Two or three authors (or editors) of the same work are listed in the order used on the title page. In a bibliography, only the first author’s name is inverted, and a comma must appear both before and after the first author’s given name or initials. Use the conjunction and (not an ampersand).

For example (don't forget proper indentation): 

5. Sue-Ellen Jacobs, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds., Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997), 32.

6. Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything (New York: William Morrow, 2005), 20–21.

7. Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang, Two-Spirit People, 65–71.

Bibliography Entry (don't forget proper indentation):

Jacobs, Sue-Ellen, Wesley Thomas, and Sabine Lang, eds. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality, and Spirituality. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Levitt, Steven D., and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. New York: William Morrow, 2005.

For works by four to ten persons, all names are included in the bibliography (follow format of as two or three authors).  In the note, include only the first author and et al..

General format:

2. FirstName LastName et al., "Title of article," Title of Journal vol, no. # (Date): p#.

3. FirstName LastName et al., Title of Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date), p#.

For example (don't forget proper indentation): 

2. Rollanda E. O’Connor et al., "Building Better Bridges: Teaching Adolescents Who Are Poor Readers in Eighth Grade to Comprehend History Text," Learning Disability Quarterly 40, no. 3 (August 2017): 178.

3. John Librarian et al., Information Literacy in Higher Education (Manchester: NH: Shapiro Library Press, 2017), 45-51.

Bibliography Entry (don't forget proper indentation):

Librarian, John, James Researcher, Alexandra Jones, Bethany Lang, and Christopher Byron. Information Literacy in Higher Education. Manchester: NH: Shapiro Library Press, 2017.

O’Connor, Rollanda E., Kristen D. Beach, Victoria Sanchez, Kathleen M. Bocian, Sarana Roberst, and Olivia Chan. "Building Better Bridges: Teaching Adolescents Who Are Poor Readers in Eighth Grade to Comprehend History Text." Learning Disability Quarterly 40, no. 3 (August 2017): 174-186. 

More information:

For further help please contact the Wolak Learning Center at 603.645.9606 (UC Students) and Online Writing Center at 866.721.1662 (Online/COCE Students) for assistance.

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