Answered By: Jennifer Harris
Last Updated: Aug 01, 2017     Views: 13239

In-text citations (also known as parenthetical citations) give brief details that reference the original source within the text of a document. See APA (6th ed.),  pp. 175-179.

As described by Nova Southeastern University on their "Citing in Text" page, "Any source information you provide in-text must match the source info on the [References] page. Specifically whatever you put first in the citation, must be the the same in-text." To create an in-text citation, use the author's last name followed by a comma and the publication year.

For example: 

(Guston, 2001)

Citing paraphrased information

The author's last name and the date can be included at the beginning, middle, or end of the paraphrased sentence. For example: 

Guston (2001) reported that more evidence was needed.

After the scandal, Guston (2001) described the ordeal in great detail.

The victims had recently purchased a home in the area (Guston, 2001).

For information on citing works with multiple authors in-text, click here.

Citing a direct quote

List the authors' last name, the publication date, and the page number in parentheses at the end. Alternatively, list the authors' last name and publication date in the sentence and put the page number in parentheses at the end. For example:

The police stated that "both victims were in their late thirties and members of the local rotary club" (Guston, 2001, p. 28).

According to Guston (2001) the police stated that "both victims were in their late thirties and members of the local rotary club" (p. 28).

More information:

For further help please contact the Wolak Learning Center at 603.645.9606 (UC Students) and Online Writing Center at 866.721.1662 (Online/COCE Students) for assistance with in-text citations.

You may also want to consider:

This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association or speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources in APA style.


Nova Southeastern University. (n.d.). Citing in Text. Retrieved from

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