Last Updated: Jun 22, 2023 Views: 103832

Identifying Authorship

Per the APA, to determine authorship, ask "who is responsible for this content?" (Lee, 2010). Sometimes it isn't a person or persons who wrote or edited the material but rather an entity (government, associations, agencies, companies, etc). Therefore, the entity will be the author. For example, if you are referencing guidelines from the CDC regarding wearing masks, your author would be the Centers for Disease Control:

Example

According to the Centers for Disease Control (2021), those who are not fully vaccinated (and over 2 years of age) should wear a mask in indoor, public spaces.

 

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, October 25). Your Guide to Masks. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/about-face-coverings.html This link opens in a new window

Lee, C. (2010, January 7). The generic reference: Who? APA Style Blog. https://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2010/01/the-generic-reference-who.html This link opens in a new window

Citing Sources with No Author

When there is no author identified, use the first few words from the title of the source used, unless the author of the work is specifically identified as “Anonymous.” For more information, please review the “Missing Reference Information This link opens in a new window” page of the APA Style Blog.

Example

The report condemned the practice ("Will returning to its founder's vision," 2011).

The government was at fault for the results (Anonymous, 2016).

 

References

Will returning to its founder's vision bring prosperity to the Detroit automotive giant, asks Ray Hutto. (2011, January 9). Sunday Times, 9.

Anonymous. (2016, August 14). Part IV: ISIS rising 2014-2015. New York Times Magazine, 43-50.

Examples of Citing Articles, Book Chapters, Web Pages, and Special Issue of Journal with No Author

Example

The oil spill affected the entire Gulf Coast ("11 Facts," n.d.).

Due to concerns about the omicron variant, Queen Elizabeth II will stay at Windsor Castle for the holidays (“Queen Elizabeth II,” 2021).

 

References

11 facts about the BP oil spill. (n.d.). DoSomething. https://www.dosomething.org/facts/11-facts-about-bp-oil-spill This link opens in a new window

Queen Elizabeth II to skip Christmas trip amid omicron surge. (2021, December 20). AP News. https://apnews.com/article/coronavirus-pandemic-queen-elizabeth-ii-health-england-europe-72bdb703f2441fad41152cae96f4103c This link opens in a new window

General Rules

  • Use double quotes around the title or the first few words in the title.
  • The comma goes inside the double-quotes.
  • You can use the first few words of the title if the entire title is too long. 
  • The important words in the article title are capitalized in the text of the paper, but only the first word and proper nouns are capitalized in the reference citation at the end of the paper.

Examples of Citing Periodicals, Books, Reports, or Brochure Titles with No Author

Example

The research findings (Do Drug Courts Work?, 2008) were...

Do Drug Courts Work?, (2008) stated...

 

References

Do drug courts work? Findings from drug court research. (2008, May 11).  National Institute of Justice. https://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/drug-courts/Pages/work.aspx This link opens in a new window

General Rules

  • Italicize the title
  • If the entire title is too long, use the first few words in the title.
  • The important words in the title of the report are capitalized in the text of the paper, but only the first word is capitalized in the reference citation at the end of the paper.

More Information

Further Help

This information is intended to be a guideline, not expert advice. Please be sure to speak to your professor about the appropriate way to cite sources in your class assignments and projects.

Campus Students

To access Academic Support, visit your Brightspace course and select “Tutoring and Mentoring” from the Academic Support pulldown menu.

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Content authored by: GS

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